Periodontics is a branch of the dental medical-surgical specialty that studies the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions that affect the tissues that support the dental organs (gum, periodontal ligament, root cement and alveolar bone) and implanted substitutes, for the maintenance of health, function and aesthetics of the teeth and their adjacent tissues.
The pathologies that affect these structures can have a diverse etiology (genetic predisposition, smoking, heavy consumption of alcoholic beverages, uncontrolled diabetes, autoimmune diseases, nutritional deficiencies, hormonal changes -especially during pregnancy and adolescence-, bad dental occlusion, breathing through the mouth...); however, the majority cause of all of them is infectious, called bacterial plaque.
Periodontal diseases have traditionally been divided into three general categories: health, gingivitis or periodontitis. In this context, the diagnosis of health implies absence of periodontal disease induced by plaque. Plaque-induced gingivitis is the presence of gingival inflammation without loss of connective tissue insertion. Plaque-induced periodontitis is the presence of gingival inflammation at sites where there has been a migration from epithelial insertion to root surfaces, accompanied by a loss of connective tissue and alveolar bone.
Today, with the advent of implantology, periodontics are also responsible for the prevention and treatment of periimplant diseases such as periimplantitis.
Periodontal disease manifests as gingivitis (inflammation and bleeding of the gum without affecting the bone) or periodontitis, where the destruction of the bone supporting the tooth occurs. If not treated in time, it can cause tooth loss.
A periodontal treatment consists of the correction of the hygiene technique for the control of bacterial plaque, until the elimination of the triggers of the same (dental stones or tartar and periodontal pouches).